Plant-Based Eating The Path to a Healthy, Sustainable Diet
Eat more plants. That’s the simple advice coming from everyone’s lips, from best-selling authors like Michael Pollan to the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the latest version of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. For the first time, the nutrition establishment, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and registered dietitians, researchers and academics in the field of nutrition, is in agreement that the diet prescription for optimal health and well-being is one focusing on whole plants. Scientific research is accumulating on the health benefits of a plant-based eating style, which include reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and obesity. Throw in the environmental benefits, such as fewer resources required to produce food, and a plant-based diet seems like the clear winner in the race for defining the optimal diet for today, as well as the future.
Plant-Based Eating on the Rise
Plant-based diets, such as veganism, have grown in popularity thanks to attention from celebrities like Oprah, who requested her staff go vegan for one week on her television show last year; Alicia Silverstone, actress, vegan and author of The Kind Diet; and Ellen Degeneres, the popular talk show host who enthusiastically supports a vegan diet. Yet, plant-based diets are very personal and unique, thus covering a wide range of dietary preferences and observances. The definition of a plant-based diet is one that focuses on plants, which leaves room for a spectrum of choices, including vegan (no animal foods), lacto-ovo vegetarian (no animal flesh but allows for dairy and eggs), pescatarian (no animal flesh except for fish and seafood) and semi-vegetarian (small amounts of animal foods). Adding to the mix is today’s generation of plant-based omnivores – those who aren’t interested in giving up animal foods completely but who recognize the health and environmental advantages of reducing their animal food intake.
Thank the “Meatless Monday” program for fueling the idea that everyone – not just vegetarians – should eat less meat and more plants. Its message is sweet and simple: People and the planet can benefit by eating less meat, so just shun it one day per week. Why not Monday? Countless organizations, restaurants, schools and hospitals have jumped onto the Meatless Monday bandwagon to celebrate this simple concept. While the number of vegans and vegetarians is still relatively low – about 5 percent of U.S. adults are vegetarians and about one-half of those are vegans – 16 percent now report eating no animal flesh at more than one-half of their meals, according to a recent Vegetarian Resource Group poll.
Plants Provide Optimal Health for Humans
Getting back to one’s roots by eating more whole plants in their natural form has a multitude of benefits for humans. Since the beginning of time, people have enjoyed a unique relationship with the plants that nourish surround them.
From the first time our early ancestors plucked wild seeds, grasses, herbs, grains and fruits, and saved them in pouches for the future, they realized these powerful plants had the ability toand sustain them. Just as humans evolved throughout time to better suit their environment and to survive threats, so did plants. These remarkable, living plants built defenses against forms of pestilence, such as disease, predators and harmful effects of ultra-violet (UV) radiation.
Plants developed thousands of phytochemicals, like flavonoids and phenols, often concentrating them in the colorful outer skins of their fruits. These compounds provided a self-defense system that ensured the species survived the test of time. Today, scientists know that humans have a symbiotic relationship with the plants that nurtured them throughout the millennia. People plucked their fruits, feasted on their nourishing properties and spit out their seeds, thus helping the plant to propagate and survive. This simple act helped to ensure the survival of both humans and plants, but people received something else in the bargain besides sheer calories to fuel their bodies. All those defensive compounds in the plants seem to confer similar properties to humans when they eat them.
It’s only been in the last few decades that scientists have begun to understand how the thousands of bioactive compounds found in plants, from resveratrol in grape skins to anthocyanins in blueberries, protect health. These compounds, which are often the pigment responsible for the plant’s brilliant color, offer a range of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and unique therapeutic benefits. Both oxidative stress, the damaging effects of free radicals on body cells, and chronic inflammation, when the body’s natural defense mechanism is triggered and doesn’t “shut off,” are at the root of today’s chronic disease killers, such as cancer and heart disease.
Indeed, study after study has linked consuming plant foods – rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties – with lower disease risk. And beyond that, particular plants and plant compounds have special activities. For example, lutein and zeaxanthin, found in yellow and orange vegetables like corn and orange peppers, protect against advanced macular degeneration, the number one cause of age-related blindness in older people. And tomatoes, rich in the ruby red pigment lycopene, show promise in the prevention of prostate cancer.
It’s important to note that the benefits found in plant foods are related to eating the whole food in its unique, complex form – fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and all. A synergy is found among all these nutrients in plant foods.
When the nutrients are isolated and consumed individually in the form of a supplement, humans don’t gain the same benefits. Something special happens when a person eats the plant food in its whole form, whether chewing a kernel of whole grain with its bran coating, endosperm and germ, or biting into a fresh strawberry and savoring its skin, flesh, juice and seeds. Unfortunately, most diets have grown distant from the whole plant foods that sustained humans. Today people often feast on processed foods that are unrecognizable from their plant origins. The health benefits found in a plant-based diet are not attached to a diet filled with such refined carbohydrates as sugars, oils and white flour – all technically plant foods.
Most traditional diets around the world, from the Mediterranean to Asia to South America, are based on plants. In many less developed countries, where people still eat their traditional, plant-based diets, chronic disease rates are very low. But when people move away from these countries to the U.S. and switch to a Western diet, characterized with the inclusion of large amounts of meat, saturated fat, processed foods, salt and low amounts of whole plant foods, they begin to experience a surge in chronic disease rates. This has been observed in many populations but probably never as famously as with the Pima Indians of Mexico, who enjoy very low rates of obesity and diabetes in their native environment. But, once the Pimas leave their homeland for the U.S. and consume a Western diet, they are besieged with obesity and one of the highest rates of Type 2 diabetes in the world.
America’s Meat Lovers’ Society
Americans love their meat; a large steak sizzling on the barbeque is practically a national icon. The problem is the size of that steak has swelled over the years, according to surveys. Many steakhouse menus proudly offer a 16-ounce cut – a full pound of meat – and call their 8-ounce portion the “petite” serving. This oversized attitude toward meat also pervades American home-style cooking, where people plan their meals based on what animal protein will star at the center of the plate. An 8-ounce steak may be an ordinary dinner in America, but it’s considered obscene in many parts of the world where it would be the appropriate amount to feed an entire family for a meal or even a week. According to the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. consumes meat at more than three times the global average.
America’s meat obsession wasn’t always so grand; the last century was marked with periods of economic hardship and food scarcity during which meat was considered precious. A small piece went into a pot of soup or beans for flavor, and the best cut was reserved for Sunday dinners. Meat consumption has most assuredly risen over the years – it’s doubled between 1909 and 2007. Across the world, meat consumption is typically an indicator of economic wealth: As income levels rise, so does meat consumption. Despite a current shift toward higher poultry consumption in the U.S., red meat – including beef, veal, pork and lamb – is still the clear winner, thus representing 58 percent of meat consumed. Americans are eating, on average, eight ounces of meat per person every day.
So, what’s the big problem with eating so much meat? Several well-designed studies indicate that a high-meat diet – especially red meat and processed meat, such as bacon and hot dogs – is likely to cause health problems down the road, such as increased risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer and metabolic syndrome – the clustering of several risk factors that puts one high risk for Type 2 diabetes and heart disease (Circulation, 2010; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009; PLoS Med, 2007). The negative effects of this type diet could be caused in part by the presence of carcinogenic compounds in cooked and processed meats and by the absence of health-protective plants in this style of eating. In fact, researchers from the National Cancer Institute report that, given the plausible scientific evidence linking red and processed meats to cancer and chronic disease risk, it might be time for health experts to start working on bringing levels of meat intake down.
At the same time, research supports a number of bonuses from a vegetarian diet. In a position paper published by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, in which an independent and systematic review of all research on vegetarian-based diets was evaluated, the organization concluded that well-planned vegetarian diets are completely healthful and nutritionally adequate for people throughout all stages of life.
And, they have a number of health advantages, including lower blood cholesterol levels, lower risk of heart disease, lower blood pressure levels, lower risk of hypertension and Type 2 diabetes. In addition, vegetarians tend to have a lower body weight, lower overall cancer rates, lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol, and higher levels of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamins C and E, folate, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.
A Healthier Diet for the Planet
No doubt human ancestry withstood the test of time thanks to its hunter-gatherer traditions. While people typically conjure up images of cavemen brandishing hand-crafted spears in pursuit of wild beasts, archaeologists explain that early humans were probably prey more often than predator. Plants were a much safer source of nourishment, and early humans gathered an abundance of plant materials along their pursuit for survival. Early human ancestors certainly relied upon animal foods, such as game, fowl and fish, to supplement their plant food diets, but today’s world is vastly different.
The animal foods they consumed were wild, lean and rich in omega-3 fatty acids, but today’s meat supply is based on a modern system of confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). In CAFO, animals are pressed together so tightly they can barely move. They will live short, miserable lives, caked in manure and fed a grain diet laced with antibiotics they were never meant to eat – all for the purpose of providing inexpensive meat to the masses.
Today, humans consume billions of pounds of animal products, thus contributing to inhumane animal practices and use of large amounts of chemical pesticides and fertilizers to produce animal feed, as well as large volumes of water and fuel to take animals to market. Byproducts of animal food production include: greenhouse gas emissions, toxic manure lagoons, deforestation and pollution of groundwater, rivers, streams and oceans.
People can make a serious impact on their carbon footprint by eating fewer animal foods, according to several studies. Italian researchers performed a life-cycle assessment to evaluate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of several dietary patterns (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006.) They discovered that an organic vegan diet had the smallest environmental impact while a conventionally farmed diet that included meat had the greatest impact on the environment. The more meat consumed, the greater the eco-impact.
Additionally, beef was the food with the single greatest impact on the environment; other high-impacting foods included cheese, fish and milk. In essence, animals make inefficient “food production machines” because they use large amounts of feed, water and fossil fuels to turn plants into protein, said the scientists. To produce one calorie from beef requires forty calories of fossil fuels, whereas producing one calorie from grains requires only 2.2 calories of fuel. Thus, plant-based diets can play an important role in preserving environmental resources and in reducing hunger in poor nations.
According to a recent analysis conducted by CleanMetrics for the public advocacy organization Environmental Working Group (EWG), greenhouse gas emissions generated by conventionally raising lamb, beef, cheese, pork and farmed salmon – from growing the animals’ food to disposing of the unused food – far exceed those from other food choices like lentils and beans. EWG found that eating less meat can significantly reduce one’s carbon footprint. If a person ate one less burger per week for one year, it would be the equivalent of driving 320 miles less. And if a four-person family took steak off the menu one day per week for one year, it would be like taking their car off the road for almost three months.
If everyone in the U.S. ate no meat or cheese for just one day a week, it would be like taking 7.6 million cars off the road.
America is facing runaway obesity rates while one billion people around the world don’t even have enough food to eat. This fact will become even tougher to deal with in 2050 when nine billion people will fill the planet. Let’s face it: Our current agricultural practices and diet patterns are unsustainable. But environmental experts agree on one important principal that could increase the world sustainability of food for the long haul: Growing animal feed on prime croplands, no matter how efficiently, is a drain on human food supply. Dedicating croplands to direct human food production could boost calories produced per person by nearly 50 percent, according to a recent report from researchers from Canada, the United States, Sweden and Germany (Nature, 2011).
When the evidence comes together, the argument is quite compelling. While our dietary past focused on balancing a plate with animal protein at its center, today’s plate should be focused on a variety of whole plant foods – whole grains, beans, lentils, peas, nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruits. This diet paradigm would help ensure the health of both humans and the planet for years to come.