Studies & Reports

  • Biodiversity

    2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation

    The National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation reports results from interviews with U.S. residents about their fishing, hunting, and wildlife watching. This report focuses on 2011 participation and expenditures of persons 16 years of age and older… (pdf 26.2MB)

    Engineering and Legislative Options for Improved Timber Haulage in Scottish Forests

    The forest industry in Scotland depends for its economic survival on the efficiency with which it can get the felled timber to the mill. This efficiency is shown to depend on pavement quality, particularly the aggregates used; the truck fleet available to extract the timber; and the interaction of these two factors and the legislative regime, including taxation, under which the forest traffic operates. Although there is a high degree of cooperation within the forest industry—pavement constructors, haulage companies, public and private forest owners, and local government authorities—there is need for a more comprehensive assessment of the interaction of the various factors affecting… (pdf 841KB)

    In situ Replication of Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder

    The concern of persistent loss of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies worldwide since 2006, a phenomenon referred to as colony collapse disorder (CCD), has led us to investigate the role of imidacloprid, one of the neonicotinoid insecticides, in the emergence of CCD. CCD is commonly characterized by the sudden disappearance of honey bees (specifically worker bees) from hives containing adequate food and various stages of brood in abandoned colonies that are not occupied by honey bees from other colonies. – March 13, 2012 (pdf 1.21MB)

    Wood Utilization Options for Urban Trees Infested by Invasive Species

    The introduction and spread of non-native invasive species are causing significant ecological and economic damage to U.S. urban and rural forests. The National Invasive Species Management Plan (2008) defines invasive species as a “species that is non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.” As a result of infestation from invasive species, particularly emerald ash borer (EAB) but also Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), gypsy moth, and thousand canker disease, tremendous numbers of infested trees are being killed and removed each year for control and ultimate eradication of the pests… – 2012 (pdf 2.49MB)

    Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy

    The Gulf of Mexico boasts rich culture, vital natural resources, billions of dollars in economic activity, and generations of unique history – all of which make it an indispensable part of our nation. The millions of people who call the region home as well as visitors from across America and around the world are drawn to the Gulf Coast’s abundant natural resources, its diverse communities and cultures, and a way of life that is truly one-of-a-kind. – December 2011 (pdf 4.61MB)

    What Lives in the Sea?

    Census of Marine Life Publishes Historic Roll Call of Species in 25 Key Ocean Areas – August 2, 2010 (pdf 894KB)

    Global Honey Bee Colony Disorders and Other Threats to Insect Pollinators

    Current evidence demonstrates that a sixth major extinction of biological diversity event is underway. The Earth is losing between one and ten percent of biodiversity per decade, mostly due to habitat loss, pest invasion, pollution, over-harvesting and disease. Certain natural ecosystem services are vital for human societies… – 2010 (pdf 3.26MB)

    The Sustainability of Freshwater Species and Water Resources Development Policy of the Army Corps of Engineers

    Documentation of increasing rates of species extinction and imperilment has caused widespread concerns over future global loss of biodiversity (e.g., Wilson and Peters 1988, Lubchenco et al. 1991). The genesis of species conservation concerns goes back more than a century in the United States and elsewhere to a time when the major recognized threat to species viability in the United States was unregulated hunting and fishing. – April 2009 (pdf 1.02MB)

    The UNEP Large Marine Ecosystem Report

    A perspective on changing conditions in LMEs of the world’s redional seas. – 2009 (pdf 188MB)

    A World Without Biodiversity?

    “Take your pick: A world in which we all dress the same, speak the same language, eat the same food and listen to the same music. All our natural areas are ploughed up for roads, buildings and corn plantations, and all that’s left of wildlife are battery-farmed chickens and dairy cows-a world without diversity.
    Or, a world that is prosperous, peaceful, healthy, colourful, vibrant and resilient–in short, a diverse and sustainable world.” – January 2008 (pdf 2.95MB)

  • Climate Change

    Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation - New

    Increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), rising temperatures, and altered precipitation patterns will affect agricultural productivity. Increases in temperature coupled with more variable precipitation will reduce productivity of crops, and these effects will outweigh the benefits of increasing carbon dioxide. Effects will vary among annual and perennial crops, and regions of the United States; however, all production systems will be affected to some degree by climate change. – February 2013 (pdf 11.8MB)

    2013 National Climate Assessment Factsheet – New

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is an important resource for understanding and communicating climate change science and impacts in the United States. It informs the nation about already observed changes, the current status of the climate, and anticipated trends for the future. The NCA report process integrates scientific information from multiple sources and sectors to highlight key findings and significant gaps in our knowledge. – 2013 (pdf 935KB)

    Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the U.S. Forest Sector  – New

    The forest sector technical report is a sector-wide scientific assessment of the current condition and likely future condition of forest resources in the United States relative to climatic variability and change. The assessment provides technical input to the National Climate Assessment (NCA) and serves as a framework for managing forest resources in the United States. The report provides technical input to the 2013 NCA developed by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). – December 2012 (pdf 5.79MB)

    History, Ideology, and U.S. Climate Policy: Beyond the Orthodxies of Left and Right

    As this paper is being written, the United States is almost certainly incurring higher costs from its climate policies than it is from climate change. Confused nostrums dominate the public debate about how best to reduce the threat of climate change. The president asserts that subsidies to more costly sources of energy are the key to “clean” growth. – December 2011 (pdf 0.99MB)

    Arctic Report Card 2011

    The Arctic Report Card considers a wide range of environmental observations throughout the Arctic, and is updated annually. A major conclusion of the 2011 Report is that there are now a sufficient number of years of data to indicate a shift in the Arctic Ocean system since 2006… – November, 23 2011 (pdf 7.33MB)

    Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security

    This report describes observable climate change and its consequences. It does not atempt to address the complex and controversial set of causes, nor does it offer recommendations on the possiblity of changing the pace or scope of climate change. Intead the focus is on the need to manage consequences. – October 2011 (pdf 12.4MB)

    Climate Change in the American Mind: Americans’ Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes in May 2011

    This study was conducted by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. – May 2011 (pdf 2.35MB)

    Global Warming’s Six Americas in May 2011

    This study was conducted by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. This report extends and updates an ongoing program of research analyzing Americans’ interpretations of and responses to climate change. The research segments the American public into six audiences that range along a spectrum of concern and issue engagement from the Alarmed, who are convinced of the reality and danger of climate change, and who are highly supportive of personal and political actions to mitigate the threat, to the Dismissive, who are equally convinced that climate change is not occurring and that no response should be made. – May 2011 (pdf 1.64MB)

    Regional Climate Change Impacts Study for the South Caucasus Region

    This report represents the first cooperative study on the impacts of climate change and adaptation in the South Caucasus involving all three countries in the region – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The study has considered four areas for investigation… – 2011 (pdf 11.7MB)

    National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces

    In response to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), the National Research Council appointed a committee operating under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board to study the national security implications of climate change for U.S. naval forces. In conducting its study, the committee found that even the most moderate current trends in climate, if continued, will present new national security challenges for the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. While the timing, degree, and consequence of future climate change impacts remain uncertain, many changes are already under way in regions around the world, such as in the Arctic, and call for action by U.S. naval leadership in response… – 2011 (pdf 2.15MB)

    Arctic Report Card: Update for 2010

    In 2010, it is clear that the Arctic is experiencing the impacts of a prolonged and amplified warming trend, highlighted with many record-setting events. Not surprisingly, the impact of this warming is most evident in the dramatic losses that have been observed in the ice covers that define the region. Since the loss of these ice covers serves to further feed the warming trend, the expectation is that warming will continue. This makes it increasingly unlikely (at least for the foreseeable future) that the Arctic will return to conditions that were considered normal in the later part of the 20th century. Instead, it is very likely that Arctic climate warming will continue and we will continue to see records set in years to come. – October 19, 2010 (pdf 7.93MB)

    British Antarctic Survey: Ice Cores and Climate Change

    Slices of ice core, drilled from the depths of the Earth’s ice sheets reveal details of the planet’s past climate. Ice cores contain information about past temperature, and about many other aspects of the environment. Crucially, the ice encloses small bubbles of air that contain a sample of the atmosphere – from these it is possible to measure directly the past concentration of gases (including carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. – September 2010 (pdf 472KB)

    Lost in Translation: Closing the Gap Between Climate Science and National Security Policy

    National security leaders now recognize that global climate change is a matter of national security and may even be a defining security challenge of the 21st century. Nonetheless, some national security professionals have yet to fully conceptualize how climate change could impact their areas of responsibility, or whether they need to analyze potential implications at all. What is more, they currently lack the “actionable” data necessary to generate requirements, plans, strategies, training and materiel to prepare for future challenges… – April 2010 (pdf 4.01MB)

    Arctic Report Card

    National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Arctic Report Card site. The Arctic Report Card considers a wide range of environmental observations throughout the Arctic, and is updated annually.

    A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change

    Global climate change has become one of the most visible environmental concerns of the 21st century. From pictures of polar bears clinging to melting ice floes in Alaska to dried and cracked farmland stretching into the horizon in Africa, images of the ecological impacts of climate change have become part of our combined consciousness and inspire concern and discussion about what climate change ultimately will mean to our planet. – 2010 (pdf 2.41MB)

    Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    Mexico, the countries of the Caribbean, and Central America examined in this report are at risk from the impacts of climate change in the next 20 years because they will be exposed to a greater range of climate changes and have a relatively weak adaptive capacity when compared to the world at large. – December 2009 (pdf 3.21MB)

    Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands are at risk from the impact of climate change in the next 20 years due to the region’s large and growing population, long coastlines, abundant low-lying areas, reliance on the agricultural sector, and dependence upon natural resources. This report focuses on the nations of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. – August 2009 (pdf 575KB)

    North Africa: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    Model projections available for North Africa indicate a clear increase in temperature over the next 20 years that is expected to continue throughout the 21st century, probably at a rate higher than the estimated global average. Model simulations also suggest a drying trend in the region, particularly along the Mediterranean coast, driven by large decreases expected in summertime precipitation. – August 2009 (pdf 1.37MB)

    Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    The report, “Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States,” compiles years of scientific research and takes into account new data not available during the preparation of previous large national and global assessments. It was produced by a consortium of experts from13 U.S. government science agencies and from several major universities and research institutes. – June 16, 2009 (pdf 13.0MB)

    Russia: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    Russia is already experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of milder winters; melting permafrost; changing precipitation patterns; the spread of disease; and increased incidence of drought, flooding, and other extreme weather events. Many of these observed climate impacts are having concrete, negative effects on Russians’ quality of life. – April 2009 (pdf 912KB)

    India: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    India is both a major greenhouse gas emitter and one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to projected climate change. The country is already experiencing changes in climate and the impacts of climate change, including water stress, heat waves and drought, severe storms and flooding, and associated negative consequences on health and livelihoods. – April 2009 (pdf 655KB)

    China: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030

    China is well known for its size: it has the world’s largest population, the third largest land area, the fourth (nominal) or second (purchase power parity) largest economy and is the second largest primary energy producer and consumer and the largest carbon dioxide emitter. – April 2009 (pdf 754KB)

    Adaptation – An issue brief for business

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, forecasts that climate change will have significant impacts on populations and environments around the world. Furthermore, it is likely that in the absence of concerted efforts to mitigate greenhouse emissions, climate change will have negative effects on business and global markets. It will likely lead to a change in existing business models and current risk management structures. – January 2009 (pdf 628KB)

    British Antarctic Survey: The Antarctic Peninsula’s Retreating Ice Shelves

    The breakout in March 2008 of the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula is the latest drama in a region that has experienced unprecedented warming over the last 50 years. In the past 30 years around ten floating ice shelves retreated, in some cases very little of their original area remains. The changes give us clues about the impact of climate change across Antarctica in the coming centuries. – 2009 (pdf 970KB)

    British Antarctic Survey: Antarctica and Climate Change

    It is widely accepted that climate change as a result of human activity is real, happening now and will have an impact on everyone and everything on the Earth. Antarctica, and the Southern Ocean that surrounds it, affects the whole planet through its influence on the Earth’s climate system. Understanding Antarctica’s role in climate change is not only a huge scientific challenge but also an urgent priority for society. – 2009 (pdf 103KB)

    Lloyd’s 360° Risk Insight, Climate Change and Security: Risks and Opportunities for Business

    The earth’s climate has always been subject to fluctuations due to a range of naturally occurring factors. But it has become increasingly evident that mankind’s activities also contribute to climatic fluctuations. This dates back to the time when organized agriculture first began but has been greatly intensified over the past two centuries as industrialisation has led to significantly increased levels of carbon emissions. – 2009 (pdf 4.94MB)

    The Most Inconvenient Truth of All: Climate Change and Indigenous People

    Indigenous people are on the frontline of climate change. Living in parts of the world where its impacts are greatest and depending largely, or exclusively, on the natural environment for their livelihoods, culture and lives, they are more vulnerable to climate change than anyone else on earth… – 2009 (pdf 7.33MB)

    Reanalysis of Historical Climate Data for Key Atmospheric Features: Implications for Attribution of Causes of Observed Change

    This Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product addresses current capabilities to integrate observations of the climate system into a consistent description of past and current conditions through the method of reanalysis. In addition, the Product assesses present capabilities to attribute causes for climate variations and trends over North America during the reanalysis period, which extends from the mid-twentieth century to the present. – December 2008 (pdf 7.33MB)

    British Antarctic Survey: Antarctica and Sea-Level Rise

    Sea-level rise increases the frequency of coastal flooding events and threatens coastal populations around the world. Around 10M people each year are affected by coastal flooding. A study by the UK Met Office identifies that as populations migrate towards coastal regions, this will increase to 30M by 2080. – January 2008 (pdf 9.35KB)

    Consumers, Brands and Climate Change

    Consumers are increasingly committed to tackling climate change, despite challenging economic times, and do not see any competition between climate change and the economy. The challenge now facing brands that seek to work with consumers on this issue is not whether consumers will support, but what they will support. – 2008 (pdf 1.44MB)

    The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change

    Although the consequences of global climate change may seem to be the stuff of Hollywood – some imagined, dystopian future – the melting ice of the Arctic, the swamping of low lying lands, and the spreading deserts of Africa are all too real. We already live in an age of consequences, one that will increasingly be defined by the intersection of climate change and the security of nations. – November 2007 (pdf 2.64MB)

    National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces

    In response to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), the National Research Council appointed a committee operating under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board to study the national security implications of climate change for U.S. naval forces. In conducting its study, the committee found that even the most moderate current trends in climate, if continued, will present new national security challenges for the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. While the timing, degree, and consequence of future climate change impacts remain uncertain, many changes are already under way in regions around the world, such as in the Arctic, and call for action by U.S. naval leadership in response… – October 2007 (pdf 4.28MB)

    Climate Literacy: Essential Principles & Fundamental Concepts

    This guide was developed with input from recent workshops and discussions; this guide reflects the current efforts in defining climate literacy. It is inspired in part by the work conducted by AAAS Project 2061, federal science agencies, educators and other organizations to identify essential principles and fundamental concepts for Ocean Literacy and related work in other areas of Earth systems science education. – DRAFT September 18, 2007 (pdf 3.82MB)

    Melting Ice: A Hot Topic?

    World Environment Day – June 5, 2007 (pdf 2.2MB)

    National Security and the Threat of Climate Change

    To better inform U.S. policymakers and the public about the threats to national security from global climate change, the CNA Corporation, a nonprofit national security analysis organization, convened a panel of retired senior military officers and national security experts and conducted an assessment of the national security implications of global climate change. In this context, we define national security to refer to the influence of climate change on geo-strategic balances and world events that could likely involve U.S. military forces or otherwise affect U.S. strategic interests anywhere in the world. – April 2007 (pdf 1.30MB)

    Global Warming and the Lost European Country

    To many the North Sea is a stretch of grey uninteresting water crossed when going from England to France by plane or ship. Few people ever imagine as they make that journey that the murky waters cover a prehistoric landscape larger than the United Kingdom itself. However, people might well pause for thought if they realised that, between 10,000 and 7,000 BC, global warming raised sea levels and swallowed a vast, inhabited plain… – 2007 (pdf 2.33MB)

    The Coastal Population Explosion

    Humankind is in the process of annihilating coastal and ocean ecosystems. At the root of the problem are burgeoning human numbers and their ever-growing needs. Population distribution is increasingly skewed. Recent studies have shown that the overwhelming bulk of humanity is concentrated along or near coasts on just 10% of the earth’s land surface. As of 1998, over half the population of the planet – about 3.2 billion people – lives and works in a coastal strip just 200 kilometers wide (120 miles), while a full two-thirds, 4 billion, are found within 400 kilometers of a coast… – 1999 (pdf 34.6KB)

  • Development

    Creating Equitable, Healthy, and Sustainable Communities: Strategies for Advancing Smart Growth, Environmental Justice, and Equitable Development

    Without the appropriate engagement and planning, the implementation of smart growth strategies in low-income and minority communities can displace existing residents due to rising rents and other costs of living. This unintended consequence has caused some environmental justice and equity proponents to question smart growth’s inclusivity, and has contributed to a divide between smart growth and environmental justice. However, some communities have worked hard to bridge that divide, and have found that a wide range of tools and strategies can be used to engage community members in neighborhood planning and visioning, provide affordable homes and transportation choices, support local businesses, and minimize displacement in other ways. Many of them are described in this publication. – February 2013 (pdf 3.55MB)

    Milking Nature’s Bottom Line

    An “industrial mega-dairy” (named Tradition Investments, LLC or Tradition Family Dairy, LLC) is attempting to site itself in the rolling hills of Jo Daviess County, a picturesque region of northwest Illinois, U.S., with a unique geology, geography, and ecology. The region retains a strong small-family-farming traditional rural identity. The project has been the subject of much controversy, with numerous objections having been raised on ecological and socioeconomic grounds. Like many business and public-policy decisions that are not explicitly being made with a sustainable ‘triple bottom line’ focus, the community’s economic cost-benefit conversation has focused primarily on the economic benefits the facility could bring to the region. – 2013 (pdf 1.49MB)

    Working Papers on Arctic Security

    The Working Papers on Arctic Security series is a joint project between the Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program and the ArcticNet project on The Emerging Arctic Security Environment. The papers fall into three categories. The first includes theoretically-and empirically-driven academic papers on subjects related to Arctic security broadly conceptualized. The second focuses on the impacts of defence and security practices on Arctic peoples, with a particular emphasis on the Canadian North during and after the Cold War. The third category of papers summarizes key Canadian and international policy documents related to Arctic security and sovereignty issues.

    Gas Patch Roulette: How Shale Gas Development Risks Public Health in Pennsylvania

    The shale gas (and oil) boom enabled by horizontal hydraulic fracturing has been accompanied by increasing reports of health problems attributed to pollution from oil and gas development. The relationship between expanding development and health problems is hotly dispute—and is the focus of this research project. Download the summary (pdf 3.80MB) – October 2012 (pdf 9.61MB)

    A Change of Plans: Rethinking Rapid Growth in a Finite World

    Population growth was once a key indicator of economic prosperity. Many economists continue to hold this view even though evidence clearly demonstrates that in recent decades, population growth has been associated with lower per capita incomes and higher rates of unemployment and poverty. What may have proven true in the past is no longer valid. This paper shows that in the U.S., there is an inverse correlation between a rising population and measures of local economic vitality… – May 2012 (pdf 1.17MB)

    How to Manage Your Company’s Reputation Through a Crisis and Come Out on Top

    On March 18, 2006, The Wall Street Journal unleashed a tsunami, reporting that several firms had falsified the dates they had awarded stock options to employees. This “stock options backdating scandal” ultimately cost Apple and the other firms involved an average of 3.6 percent of their share price. But some firms suffered steeper losses than others. One reason why some firms fared better might be their reputations. But how does a reputation for social responsibility reduce the negative stock market impact of a scandal? – April 2012 (pdf 202KB)

    Bridging the Research—Practice Gap

    Management research often bears little resemblance to management practice. Although this research–practice gap is widely recognized and frequently lamented, there is little discussion about how it can be bridged. We partly remedy this problem in this paper by describing our experiences with the Network for Business Sustainability. Our experiences showed that the paradoxes underlying the relationship between research and practice make bridging this gap difficult. We argue that the reason why the research–practice gap endures is that bridging it is beyond the capabilities and scope of most individuals, and we call for the creation of intermediary organizations like the Network for Business Sustainability. We close by outlining some of the activities that can be undertaken by these boundary-spanning intermediary organizations, with the hopes of better aligning management research and practice. – February 2012 (pdf 714KB)

    A Safe and Just Space for Humanity: Can We Live Within the Donut?

    This Discussion Paper sets out a visual framework for sustainable development – shaped like a doughnut – by combining the concept of planetary boundaries with the complementary concept of social boundaries. Achieving sustainable development means ensuring that all people have the resources needed – such as food, water, health care, and energy – to fulfil their human rights… – February 2012 (pdf 1.18MB)

    United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

    Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,
    Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea… (pdf 957KB)

    The Lighthouses Act of 1789

    The Lighthouses Act of 1789, one of several laws that the First Congress passed to regulate and encourage the trade and commerce of the new nation, extended federal control and funding to lighthouses that states had previously administered. Although the Senate records of the First Congress are substantially complete, until recently they included no record of the Lighthouseses Act, other than the Senate legislative journal. In the spring of 1991, however, the Senate… (pdf 2.94MB)

    Smart Meter Data: Privacy and Cybersecurity

    Fueled by stimulus funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), electric utilities have accelerated their deployment of smart meters to millions of homes across the United States with help from the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Investment Grant program. As the meters multiply, so do issues concerning the privacy and security of the data collected by the new technology. This Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) promises to increase energy efficiency, bolster electric power grid reliability, and facilitate demand response, among other benefits. However, to fulfill these ends, smart meters must record near-real time data on consumer electricity usage and transmit the data to utilities over great distances via communications networks that serve the smart grid. Detailed electricity usage data offers a window into the lives of people inside… – February 3, 2012 (pdf 215KB)

    Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology, “Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters”

    The draft report by the California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) does not appear to answer the questions asked of it by the requesting elected officials. Furthermore, rather than being an independent, science-based study, the CCST largely cuts and pastes estimates from a brochure by the Electric Power Research Institute, an industry group, issued some weeks earlier. The EPRI estimates appear incorrect in a number of… – January 31, 2012 (pdf 985KB)

    Generational Differences in Young Adults’ Life Goals, Concern for Others and Civic Orientation, 1966-2009

    “People born between 1982 and 2000 are the most civic-minded since the generation of the 1930s and 1940s,” say Morley Winograd and Michael Hais, co-authors of Millennial Makeover: MySpace, You-Tube, and the Future of American Politics. . . . – Jan. 23, 2012 (pdf 273KB)

    American Academy of Environmental Medicine Urges Moratorium on “Smart Meters”

    The Board of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine opposes the installation of wireless “smart meters” in homes and schools based on a scientific assessment of the current medical literature (references available upon request). Chronic exposure to wireless radiofrequency radiation is a preventable environmental hazard that is sufficiently well-documented to warrant immediate preventive public health… – January 19, 2012 (pdf 152KB)

    Santa Cruz Public Health Official Smart Meter Report

    On December 13,2011, your Board directed this office to return today with a report on issues associated with the current SmartMeter moratorium ordinance, and information on the possible extension of the moratorium for an additional year. Your Board also directed the Public Health Offcer to return with an analysis of the research on the health effects of SmartMeters, and directed County Counsel to return with a report regarding the legality of a public utility refusing service to customers who are willing to pay for service and are willing to have an analog meter. – January 18, 2012 (pdf 4.09MB)

    Innovating for Sustainability: A Guide for Executives

    This report answers the question: “What innovation activities do firms engage in to become sustainable?” Based on 127 leading academic and industry sources from 1992 to 2012, this guide: (1) Presents a sustainability roadmap for business leaders, including a 3-stage framework for assessing which stage(s) of the sustainability continuum your organization currently occupies. (2) Provides 38 practices for fostering innovation across each stage. (3) Highlights “how-to” case studies from leading organizations, large and small, that are actively finding new ways to serve people, profits and planet. – 2012 (pdf 4.1MB)

    Coal Blooded: Putting Profits Before People

    This report focuses on the role that coal-fired power plants have in the inequitable health outcomes of low income communities and communities of color in the U.S. and in the contribution of greenhouse gasses that drive climate change, the consequences of which also disproportionately impact people of color and low income communities globally. Coal plants have differing effects on low-income communities and communities of color – some are measurably worse than others. This report provides an empirical discussion of the effects of burning coal in power plants. Researchers focus on the coal plants in the U.S. with the worst records on environmental justice, and on the companies that own them. – 2012 (pdf 5.5MB)

    Africa Human Development Report 2012: Towards a Food Secure Future

    Hunger and starvation in sub-Saharan Africa have lasted too long. But Africans are not consigned to a lifetime of food insecurity. The knowledge, technology and resources for closing the food security deficit are available today, and breakthroughs will continue to emerge from research and development. (Read the Summary, pdf 1.88MB.) – 2012 (pdf 7.96MB)

    Water, the Major Environmental Factor Affecting Roads and Earthworks

    Potential Sources and Mechanisms of Water Flow Through Convetionally Designed Road Structures – 2012 (pdf 264KB)

    Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population

    This report focuses on the size and geographic distribution of the world’s Christian population as of 2010. It is, in that sense, a snapshot in time. But because the true picture is not static, the Executive Summary also presents some comparisons with the world’s Christian population a century earlier. This is far enough back in time to allow us to see substantial change, yet not so far back that the population figures become hopelessly murky. – December 2011 (pdf 12MB)

    State of Sustainable Business Poll 2011

    The most important leadership challenge facing business today is integration of sustainability into core business functions. Almost two thirds of respondents selected this as the most significant challenge, followed by convincing investors that sustainability enhances value, and planning for the long term (both mentioned by 30 percent). – Nov. 2, 2011 (pdf 2.71MB)

    The Green Evolution

    In 2009, we undertook a study to understand how the green consumer product market was growing, including evaluating the different types of green consumers and the key attributes they associated with green products. Since then, the market has clearly evolved. There are now more green products entering the market, increasing competition and consumers sophistication on the topic. – November 2011 (pdf 1.29MB)

    Vulnerability and Livelihoods before and after the Haiti Earthquake

    This paper examines the dynamics of poverty and vulnerability in Haiti using various data sets. As living conditions survey data are not comparable in this country, we first propose to use the three rounds of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) available before the earthquake. Decomposing household assets changes into age and cohort effects, we use repeated cross-section data to identify and estimate the variance of shocks on assets and to simulate the probability of being poor in the future… – October 2011 (pdf 2.31MB)

    The Military-Civilian Gap: War and Sacrifice in the Post-9/11 Era

    The report is based on two surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center: one of the nation’s military veterans and one of the general public. A total of 1,853 veterans were surveyed, including 712 who served in the military after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. The general public survey was conducted among 2,003 adult respondents. – October 2011 (pdf 2.25MB)

    IARC Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans

    The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, associated with wireless phone use. – May 31, 2011 (pdf 248KB)

    The Transatlantic Cocaine Market

    Transnational cocaine trafficking has been affecting the Americas for the last 40 years. Although the value of the global market has declined greatly since the mid-1980s, the flow of cocaine in that region continues to have an impact on public health and to generate large revenues that fuel violence and corruption in many countries… – April 2011 (pdf 1.77MB)

    Restructuring USAID: A Case Study on Haiti

    The current model of foreign aid for disaster relief employed by USAID needs to be redeveloped. Following Haiti’s 7.0 earthquake in January 2010, USAID was highly influential in providing immediate relief. As time progressed, USAID shifted to providing for long term reconstruction and redevelopment. However, USAID policy in Haiti focuses on consequences and not their root causes. Shifting USAID’s focus to addressing the causes would allow problems to be resolved in the long-term and would facilitate Haitian development. In addition to restructuring USAID’s programs, US foreign policy itself must buttress USAID goals if USAID measures are to be effective… – Spring 2011 (pdf 183KB)

    Jepsen Urges State Regulations to Reject CL&P’S Plan to Replace Electric Meters

    Connecticut Light & Power Co.’s plan to replace existing electric meters with advanced technology would be very expensive and would not save enough electricity for its 1.2 million customers to justify the expense, Attorney General George Jepsen said… – February 8, 2011 (pdf 23.1KB)

    New Jobs – Cleaner Air: Employment Effects Under Planned Changes to the EPA’s Air Pollution Rules

    The CAA and its 1990 amendments have significantly reduced power sector air pollution. In 2011, EPA plans to implement regulations that will further reduce targeted emissions. Last July, the EPA proposed the Transport Rule to introduce new standards governing SO2 and NOx emissions from 31 states and the District of Columbia, emissions that hinder the ability of downwind states to comply with national ambient air quality standards… – February 2011 (pdf 616KB)

    The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030

    A little more than a year ago, the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life published Mapping the Global Muslim Population, which estimated that there were 1.57 billion Muslims of all ages around the world in 2009. Now, with this report on The Future of the Global Muslim Population, we are taking the next step: using standard demographic methods to project – despite many uncertainties – how many Muslims there are likely to be in each of the world’s 232 countries and territories by 2030. – January 2011 (pdf 11.2MB)

    Arfica Partnership Station: Improving Maritime Security through Collaborative Partnerships

    An article from Naval Forces Magazine by Rear Admiral Gerard P. Hueber and Captian (N) Susan L. Dunlop, US Navy. – January 2011 (pdf 2.58MB)

    The EMC SQUARED System from Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc.

    Soil Stabilization Products Company, Inc. (SSPCo) has a long relationship with the federal agencies (View USACE projects.) that have expansive road construction and road maintenance responsibilities. With individual agencies managing road networks that can include several hundred thousand miles of paved and unpaved roads, there are widespread opportunities with the availability of advanced stabilization product technology and highly experienced technical support services to build better roads, reduce construction costs and reduce environmental impacts. SSPCo’s EMC SQUARED System stabilization products (View comparison charts.) have been in service on federal agency projects for more than 20 years and SSPCo has been involved in hundreds of stabilization projects across the country and internationally, including arctic, desert and tropical rainforest locations… – 2011 (pdf 2.57MB)

    Interstate 40 Freeway, 11 Year Update

    The section of the Interstate 40 freeway just east of Grants, New Mexico, identified as Milepost 93 to 97 (MP 93-97), has in past years been a nightmare for the New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT). Grants is at an elevation of approximately 6,500 feet, close to where Interstate 40 crosses the Continental Divide at the southern end of the Rocky Mountains. This section of freeway is impacted by a high frequency of heavy truck traffic and severe cold climate conditions in winter. Groundwater problems are extreme under the freeway alignment. The silty clay subgrade soils were regularly found to be in a highly saturated state when excavated during full depth repair and reconstruction efforts. This section of freeway prior to year 2000 had required full depth removal and replacement of the entire pavement structural section on a three to five year cycle… – 2011 (pdf 1.21MB)

    Texas Highway Projects, 11 Year Update

    Beginning in 1996, the EMC SQUARED® System was evaluated in a two year laboratory study at the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), which was funded by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Dallas District. The principal author of the study was Dr. Robert Lytton, Research Engineer for TTI, Director of the Center for Infrastructure Engineering at Texas A&M University, and more recently the Distinguished Lecturer for the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting. The study focused on identifying effective treatment for sulfate bearing expansive clay soils. Soils used in the laboratory testing were sampled from problem locations… – 2011 (pdf 2.43MB)

    Water Works, Rebuilding Infrastructure – Creating Jobs – Greening the Environment

    This report estimates the economic and job creation impact of a major investment in water infrastructure in the United States. This number – $188.4 billion – is based on the level of investment necessary, as estimated by the Environmental Protection Agency, to manage stormwater and preserve water quality across the country… – 2011 (pdf 16.6MB)

    The Potential Impact of Mobile Phone Use on Trends in Brain and CNS Tumors

    All case-control studies which covered 10 years of use have reported an increased risk of brain tumors from the use of mobile phones. Mobile phone radiation exposure limits are based on thermal heating of the body and the brain. Many research studies have identified biological effects far below the thermally based exposure limits, such as increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the head, deleterious effects on sperm, double strand breaks in DNA, and stress gene activation indicating an exposure to a toxin… – 2011 (pdf 0.99MB)

    Human Development Report 2011

    This Report explores the integral links between environmental sustainability and equity and shows that these are critical to expanding human freedoms for people today and in generations to come. The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades that the Human Development Report has documented cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. We identify pathways for people, communities, countries and the international community to promote environmental sustainability and equity in mutually reinforcing ways… – 2011 (pdf 5.6MB)

    DOE Report on the First Quadrennial Technology Review

    Access to clean, affordable, secure, and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of America’s economic growth. The Nation’s systems that produce, store, transmit, and use energy are falling short of U.S. needs. Maintaining energy security, bolstering U.S. competitiveness, and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy are long-standing challenges. Governments, consumers, and the private sector have worked for decades to address these challenges, yet they remain among the Nation’s most pressing issues… – 2011 (pdf 10.7MB)

    Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2011

    Humanitarian aid is being stretched. Millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa are living with conflict and its legacy; natural disasters such as the earthquake in Haiti and the floods in Pakistan have the power to disrupt and sometimes even paralyse economic and social infrastructure; recovery and reconstruction remain uneven following large-scale conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan; and political turmoil is escalating… – 2011 (pdf 5.63MB)

    Policy Options and Actions for Expediting Progress in Implementation: Mining

    A number of significant changes have taken place in the mining sector since the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. Progress has been achieved on transparency and governance of the sector. Many companies have embraced progressive voluntary guidelines and principles as a framework for their operations, while pursing resource efficiency improvements. However, significant gaps remain. Many countries could enhance the contribution of their mineral wealth to their national economies… – December 2010 (pdf 84.5KB)

    Different Race, Different Recession: American Indian Unemployment in 2010

    There are two very different experiences of the recession in some regions of the country. While Alaska and the Northern Plains states have had some of the lowest unemployment rates for whites since the start of the recession, these regions have had among the highest rates of joblessness for American Indians… – November 18, 2010 (pdf 122KB)

    The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

    Haiti’s economic, political, and social development has been on a slow track since the transition from dictatorship to democracy began in the mid-1980s. The devastating earthquake of January 12, 2010, was a major setback to what little progress had already been made. Haiti struggled with providing basic needs even prior to the catastrophe, but currently is without the physical, political, and economic infrastructure to provide adequately for its citizens. As the massive humanitarian relief effort continues, planning for Haiti’s economic reconstruction and development is also underway… – June 24, 2010 (pdf 385KB)

    A New Era of Sustainability

    The sustainability landscape is changing CEOs around the world are starting to see the shape of a new era of sustainability coming into view. In the face of rising global competition, technological change and the most serious economic downturn in nearly a century, corporate commitment to the principles of sustainability remains strong throughout the world: 93 percent of CEOs see sustainability as important to their company’s future success… – June 2010 (pdf 2.78MB)

    West Africa Regional Fisheries Project: Estimation of the Cost of Illegal Fishing in West Africa

    This study was conducted as part of the preparation for the World Bank’s West Africa Regional Fisheries Project. It had as its primary aim a focused case study on the economic impacts of illegal fishing activities in CSRP member states: Cape Verde, the Gambia and Guinea, plus the key study countries Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone… – May 2010 (pdf 1.91MB)

    Embedding Sustainability in Organizational Culture: A How-to Guide for Executives

    A 2010 Accenture global survey of more than 700 CEOs found that 93 percent see sustainability as important to their company’s future success. However, many business leaders struggle to build sustainability into their day-to-day operations. And, sustainability programs are often dependent on a key leader. Executives and senior managers want to know how to ‘sustain’ sustainability over the long term. To make sustainability an everyday, enduring part of the organization, it needs to become embedded in organizational culture. – 2010 (pdf 1.1MB)

    Active for more comfort: The Passive House

    Information for propert developers, contractors and clients. A Passive House combines high-level comfort with very low energy consumption. Passive components like thermal windows, insulation and heat recovery are the key elements. Each Passive House is an active contribution to climate protection. On the outside, Passive Houses are no different from conventional buildings, because the term “Passive House” describes a standard and not a specific contruction method. – 2010 (pdf 7.17MB)

    World Jewish Population, 2010

    At the beginning of 2010, the world’s Jewish population was estimated at 13,428,300—an increase of 80,300 (0.6 percent) over the 2009 revised estimate. The world’s total population increased by 1.25 percent in 2009. World Jewry hence increased at half the general population growth rate. – 2010 (pdf 3.26MB)

    Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance Annual Report 2009

    Fiscal Year 2009 was an exciting year for OFDA. In the face of challenges, OFDA staff worked tirelessly and responded vigorously to sudden-onset natural disasters and continuing complex emergencies… – 2010 (pdf 15.4MB)

    Promoting Development, Saving the Planet

    The central message of the World Economic and Social Survey 2009 is that addressing the climate challenge cannot be met through ad hoc and incremental actions. In the first place, it requires much stronger eff orts by advanced countries to cut their emissions. – June 2009 (pdf 1.78MB)

    The Crisis of the 2020s

    Demographics and Geopolitics in the 21st Century – April 29, 2009 (pdf 70KB)

    Sustainability: The Rise of Consumer Responsibility

    As the forecast for the economy remains gray, this new report sheds light on how consumers find the silver lining by living responsibly. – January 2009 (pdf 987KB)

    Blood Oil in the Niger Delta

    The recent resumption of attacks against the oil industry in the Niger Delta and the resultant increase in oil prices have reminded the world that the unrest there is not a problem for Nigeria alone. Indeed, the business of bunkering illegal oil, or blood oil, involves players far beyond the shores of Nigeria and will require an international effort to control it. Additionally, the broader issues of underdevelopment and overmilitarization of the Niger Delta, as well as the region’s lack of participation in the oil and gas industry, must be addressed before any lasting peace can be found… – 2009 (pdf 633KB)

    Community Sustainability throughout Wisconsin

    Mead & Hunt conducted a survey of town, village, and city representatives throughout Wisconsin during the months of September and October 2008. The goal of the study is to provide municipal professionals with an enhanced understanding of sustainable practices taking place throughout Wisconsin and to inform communities about current and future trends related to sustainability. The results depicted in this document are based on the 55 responses that were received. – 2009 (pdf 6.66MB)

    Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World

    We prepared Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World to stimulate strategic thinking about the future by identifying key trends, the factors that drive them, where they seem to be headed, and how they might interact. It uses scenarios to illustrate some of the many ways in which the drivers examined in the study (e.g., globalization, demography, the rise of new powers, the decay of international institutions, climate change, and the geopolitics of energy) may interact to generate challenges and opportunities for future decisionmakers. The study as a whole is more a description of the factors likely to shape events than a prediction of what will actually happen. – November 2008 (pdf 5.74MB)

    U.S. Religious Landscape Survey, Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic

    An extensive new survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life details the religious affiliation of the American public and explores the shifts taking place in the U.S. religious landscape. Based on interviews with more than 35,000 Americans age 18 and older, the U.S. Religious Landscape Survey finds that religious affiliation in the U.S. is both very diverse and extremely fluid… – February 2008 (pdf 1.41MB)

    Africa and World Trade

    Increasing participation in the world economy has been a vital strategy for countries that have developed. It will also be crucial for Africa’s development. Africa’s relative performance in the global market has reached drastically low levels in the past thirty years. Although total levels of merchandise trade have increased for all African countries, sub-Saharan Africa’s share of world trade has been in decline for a long time, most markedly since the 1980s (see chart 1). Compare this with the performance of the Asian region, where shares of world trade have doubled over the same period reaching 27.8 percent in 2006, and Africa’s increased marginalisation in the world economy becomes even more apparent. In other words, Africa’s overall growth in trade is below – even far below… – 2007 (pdf 103KB)

    Doing Our Part to Grow Greener Products

    With our patented Greenlist™ process, SC Johnson continues to improve our products and minimize the impact they have on the environment and human health. Also, by participating in efforts such as the U.S. EPA’s Design for the Environment program, we continue to ensure product development decisions are made for the next generation. – 2007 (pdf 3.04MB)

    Progress Can Kill: How Imposed Development Destroys the Health of Tribal Peoples

    Across the world, from the poorest to the richest countries, indigenous peoples today experience chronic ill health. They endure the worst of the diseases that accompany poverty and, simultaneously, many suffer from ‘diseases of affluence’ – such as cancers and obesity – despite often receiving few of the benefits of ‘development’. – 2007 (pdf 3.04MB)

    Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan

    By the fall of 2005, Afghanistan had reached a critical transition point. In many parts of the country, there was broad-based support for the national government. Recent elections for the National Assembly and provincial councils unfolded with very little violence and, for the first time, Afghans elected representatives at the local level. However, corruption and violence in the provinces continue to threaten to undermine the legitimacy of the national government and reverse these gains… – June 2006 (pdf 454KB)

    Haiti Profile

    The country profile of Haiti from the Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. – May 2006 (pdf 152KB)

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1542

    Information on establishing the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). – April 30, 2004 (pdf 34.3KB)

  • Education

    STEM Teachers in Professional Learning Communities: From Good Teachers to Great Teaching

    STEM teaching is more effective and student achievement increases when teachers join forces to develop strong professional learning communities in their schools. This funding supported by a two-year National Science Foundation funded study, STEM Teachers in Professional Learning Communities: A Knowledge Synthesis (“Knowledge Synthesis”), conducted by the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF) and WestEd, based on an analysis of nearly two hundred STEM education research articles… – June 2011 (pdf 560KB)

    Why Naval STEM? – 12 Facts

    America is the world’s technology leader, however, in recent years, the supply of graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education has not kept up with increasing demand. This trend threatens America’s future economic security and our ability to provide naval forces with the breakthrough technologies that give Sailors and Marines their edge. – 2011 (pdf 1.6MB)

    Increasing the Number of STEM Graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education & Modeling Project

    BHEF’s Securing America’s Leadership in STEM Initiative has broken new ground in addressing one of our nation’s most critical challenges – increasing the number of students who are interested in and pursue careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics, the so-called “STEM” fields. The Initiative, which identified as its goal the doubling of U.S. bachelor’s degrees earned in STEM fields, produced the first simulation model of STEM education in the United States… – 2010 (pdf 1.22MB)

    Building a 21st Century U.S. Education

    I’ve often wondered what would happen if, all in the same day, our country had a major earthquake, a tsunami, one or two hurricanes, a couple of tornadoes and a plane crash with a total of 100,000 or more kids killed, seriously injured, or rendered homeless. Without a doubt, there would be a national call to action with thousands of volunteers and unprecedented charitable donations to support the cause… – 2007 (pdf 1.02MB)

    Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education: A Two-Tiered Education System

    As we mark the fiftieth anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, millions of low income students and children of color are concentrated in separate and unequal schools. Many are being taught by unqualified teachers, with insufficient instructional materials and a limited supply of textbooks and inadequate technology, in crumbling buildings – with vermin and broken bathrooms. These substandard teaching and learning conditions are rarely found in schools where the majority of students come from more affluent backgrounds and have a low risk of school failure. We have a two-tiered education system… – May 13, 2004 (pdf 467KB)

  • Energy

    BP Energy Outlook 2030

    This edition updates our view of the likely path of global energy markets to 2030, taking account of developments over the past year. The underlying methodology remains unchanged – we make assumptions on changes in policy, technology and the economy, based on extensive internal and external consultations, and use a range of analytical tools to build a “to the best of our knowledge” view. (Related files: Statistical Review, pdf 659KB, and Summary Tables, pdf 65.5KB.) – January 2012 (pdf)

    Solar Energy Development on DoD Installations

    This analysis determined that over 7,000 megawatts of solar energy development is technically feasible and financially viable at several Department of Defense (DoD) installations in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts of California. (Read the Executive Summary, pdf 812KB) – January 2012 (pdf 14.7MB)

    Benchmarking Electric Utility Energy Efficiency Portfolios in the US

    There are few signs that the urgently needed change in direction in global energy trends is underway. Although the recovery in the world economy since 2009 has been uneven, and future economic prospects remain uncertain, global primary energy demand rebounded by a remarkable 5% in 2010, pushing CO2 emissions to a new high. Subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption of fossil fuels jumped to over $400 billion. The number of people without access to electricity remained unacceptably high at 1.3 billion… – November 2011 (pdf 2.41MB)

    Ensuring America’s Freedom of Movement: A National Security Imperative to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence – New

    This study examines the national security implications of a transition away from conventional petroleumbased fuels in the U.S. transportation sector. Our national security focus is based primarily on our experiences as senior military leaders and offers perspectives that differ from traditional energy analysis. We consider geopolitical, economic and environmental aspects of energy as a matter of course, but view the full suite of issues through a security prism… – 2011 (pdf 7.82MB)

    Public Support for Climate and Energy Policies in May 2011

    A May 2011 report, Climate Change in the American Mind: Public Support for Climate & Energy Policies in May 2011, was conducted by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. It provides a comparison of responses from November 2008 to January 2010 to June 2010 to May 2011. – May 2011 (pdf 1.52MB)

    Unlocking the Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Unlocking the benefits of energy efficiency: An executive dilemma is an Economist Intelligence Unit research paper, sponsored by Ingersoll Rand. It reviews the importance of energy efficiency within business today and executive attitudes towards this issue. For the purposes of this report, energy efficiency is defined as: “implementing initiatives that reduce energy consumption or use energy more efficiently.” The report is based on the following inputs… – February 2011 (pdf 1.04MB)

    The Future of the Electric Grid – New

    The U.S. electric grid is a vast physical and human network connecting thousands of electricity generators to millions of consumers—a linked system of public and private enterprises operating within a web of government institutions: federal, regional, state, and municipal. The grid will face a number of serious challenges over the next two decades, while new technologies also present valuable opportunities for meeting these challenges. A failure to realize these opportunities or meet these challenges could result in degraded reliability, significantly increased costs, and a failure to achieve several public policy goals. This report, the fifth in the MIT Energy Initiative’s Future of series, aims to provide a comprehensive, objective portrait of the U.S. electric grid and the identification and analysis of areas in which intelligent policy changes, focused research… – 2011 (pdf 4.04MB)

    Drilling in Extreme Environments

    This ongoing demand for energy, together with diminishing supplies of traditional fossil fuels, especially in areas where they are easy to find and recover, is pushing oil and gas exploration out into new geographical and technological frontiers. This not only brings with it fresh new challenges and risks for oil and gas companies operating in these more extreme environments, but also for energy insurers who help the global energy industry manage the risks associated with offshore drilling… – 2011 (pdf 5.54MB)

    World Energy Outlook 2011

    This report provides a discussion of benchmarking ratepayer-funded electric utility energy efficiency portfolios in the United States. Measuring and comparing energy efficiency portfolios is becoming increasingly important as energy efficiency begins to play a larger role in our nation’s energy mix, and utility energy efficiency budgets increase… – 2011 (pdf 796KB)

    AEO2011 Early Release Overview

    Projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) Reference case focus on the factors that shape U.S. energy markets in the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations will remain generally unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2011 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies, rules, or regulations… – Decemember 2010 (pdf 436KB)

    Energy Innovation: Driving Technology Competition and Cooperation Among the U.S., China, India, and Brazil

    If governments are to respond effectively to the challenge of climate change, they will need to ramp up their support for innovation in lowcarbon technologies and make sure that the resulting developments are diffused and adopted quickly. Yet for the United States, there is a tension inherent in these goals: the country’s interests in encouraging the spread of technology can clash with its efforts to strengthen its own economy. – November 2010 (pdf 1.49MB)

    International Energy Outlook 2010

    With Projections to 2035 – May 25, 2010 (pdf 117KB)

    Lloyd’s 360° Risk Insight, Sustainable Energy Security: Strategic Risks and Opportunities for Business

    The report looks at short-term (one to five years) and medium-term (five to ten years) risks to general business. It also considers longer-term (ten years plus) issues, particularly as they impact on technological and investment choices for the energy sector. While energy supply disruption is frequently the result of technical faults and strike action, we do not deal with this here, but concentrate instead on the impacts of constraints on carbon and carbon-based resources. – 2010 (pdf 2.19MB)

    Powering America’s Defense: Energy and the Risks to National Security

    This new volume builds on that finding (see National Security and the Threat of Climate Change below) by considering the security risks inherent in America’s current energy posture, energy choices the nation can make to enhance our national security, the impact of climate change on our energy choices and our national security, and the role DoD can play in the nation’s approach to energy security. These issues were viewed through the lens of the extensive military experience of the Military Advisory Board. The issues were considered solely for their impact on America’s national security. – May 2009 (pdf 806KB)

    Tires and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy – New

    During 2005, gasoline and diesel prices, adjusted for inflation, rose to levels not experienced in the United States in a quarter century. For a growing number of Americans, the price of motor fuel has become a real financial concern. Whether fuel prices will stabilize or fluctuate remains to be seen, but one apparent outcome of recent price instability is renewed interest among consumers and policy makers in vehicle fuel economy. Motor vehicles account for about half of the nation’s petroleum usage, and about three-quarters of this fuel goes to the 220 million cars and light-duty trucks in the nation’s passenger vehicle fleet… – 2006 (pdf 927KB)

    Energy Policy Act of 2005

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled… – Aug. 8, 2005 (pdf 3.07MB)

  • Environment

    2011 Toxics Release Inventory National Analysis Overview

    The 2011 TRI National Analysis is EPA’s annual interpretation of TRI data, and it provides the public with valuable information on how toxic chemicals were managed, where toxic chemicals ended up, and how 2011 compares to previous years. Users of TRI data should be aware that TRI captures a significant portion of toxic chemicals in wastes that are managed by industrial facilities, but it does not cover all toxic chemicals or all sectors of the U.S. economy. – January 2013 (pdf 5.65MB)

    Running Dry: Looming Water Shortages in the United States

    The problem is not a lack of water but the availability of a safe water supply needed for a rapidly growing population. Water is a renewable resource, but that does not mean that it’s in infinite supply. The water cycle is a closed system, meaning that we cannot add more steps to it. When we talk about wasting water what we mean to say is that we are interfering in the cycle in a way that causes it to take longer for useable water to complete the cycle. – September 2012 (pdf 695KB)

    Climate Policy Initiative, Tracking Emissions and Mitigation Actions: Evaluation of MRV Systems in China, Germany, Italy, and the US

    This report focuses on systems that measure emissions, estimate the impact of mitigation actions, report those results, and verify that the information is complete and correct. We use the term measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) to refer to these systems. While institutions vary across different political, social and economic systems, all countries are pursuing some common objectives in terms of climate change mitigation, and all can benefit from effective MRV systems. (View the Factsheet, pdf 254KB.) — April 2012 (pdf 784KB)

    Global Demand for Vegetable Oils Contributing to Deforestation

    The global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at an unsustainable rate – more than 5 percent annually over the past decade – contributing to massive deforestation in tropical regions, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). UCS’s report “Recipes for Success: Solutions for Deforestation-Free Vegetable Oils,” which was co-authored with Climate Advisers, offers solutions for businesses, governments and consumers on producing and using vegetable oil without causing deforestation… — March 7, 2012

    Facts and Figures on E-Waste and Recycling – New

    This is a summary of available statistics that help is to quantify the problems of electronic waste and e-waste recycling efforts. Each item includes its source and link to the original documents (where available), to make it easy for reporters and researchers to confirm data back to the original source. – February 21, 2012 (pdf 178KB)

    e-Waste: The Exploding Global Electronic Waste Crisis – New

    The world has been dazzled by advances in the electronics industry and the amazing products we now depend on in our everyday lives. But rapid advances in technology mean that electronic products are becoming obsolete more quickly. Shorter product life-spans, coupled with explosive sales in consumer electronics, mean that more products are being disposed of, and discarded computers, TVs, and other consumer electronics (so-called e-waste) are now the fastest growing waste stream in the U.S. – (pdf 668KB)

    Reputational Risks, Regulatory Challenges and Legal Uncertainties

    This report highlights the range of existing and emerging risks associated with development of the proposed pebble copper and gold mine in southwest Alaska. The advisory details the growing list of regulatory, legal, engineering and political challenges facing the London-based mining giant as it struggles to secure permits for the controversial gold-copper mine planned for the headwaters of Bristol Bay, the world’s biggest wild sockeye salmon fishery. – February 2012 (pdf 1.40MB)

    TROUBLED WATERS: How mine Waste dumping is Poisoning our Oceans, Rivers, and Lakes

    Mining companies are dumping more than 180 million tonnes of hazardous mine waste each year into rivers, lakes, and oceans worldwide, threatening vital bodies of water with toxic heavy metals and other chemicals poisonous to humans and wildlife. The amount of mine waste dumped annually is 1.5 times as much as all the municipal waste dumped in U.S. landfills in 2009. – February 2012 (pdf 4.49MB)

    Climate Policy Initiative, Tracking Emissions and Mitigation Actions: Current Practice in China, Germany, Italy, and the US

    This report represents the first stage of a broader CPI effort to characterize, evaluate, and draw insights from existing domestic MRV systems for emissions and mitigation actions in four of the major emitters – China, Italy, Germany, and the United States. (View the Factsheet, pdf 254KB.) — February 2012 (pdf 1.53MB)

    Floridians Seek More Federal Relief

    In the years before World War II, Florida begins an economic recovery and military buildup, spurring population growth. In 1940, the population reaches almost 2.9 million. For the first time, women outnumber men at 50.3 percent of the population. In 1947, after years of drought, the state is deluged by rainfall averaging 100 inches along the lower east coast, almost twice the norm. Much of the ground is saturated when two hurricanes hit the state late in the year; flooding throughout the region is catastrophic. Floridians ask the federal government for a master plan to balance the need for flood protection and reliable water supply. (pdf 4.52MB)

    Arctic Opening: Opportunity and Risk in the High North

    The Arctic region is undergoing unprecedented and disruptive change. Its climate is changing more rapidly than anywhere else on earth. Rising temperatures are causing a retreat of sea ice and changes to seasonal length, weather patterns and ecosystems. These changes have prompted a reassessment of economic and development potential in the Arctic and are giving rise to a set of far-reaching political developments. – 2012 (pdf 10.8MB)

    A Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability

    The ocean is an integral part of our planet, and is an absolutely essential component of human lives, livelihoods and the environment that sustains us. Use of ocean space and resources has been an essential component of global economic growth and prosperity… – 2012 (pdf 2.24MB)

    Simulating fuel treatment effects in dry forests of the western United States: testing the principles of a fire-safe forest

    We used the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) to simulate fuel treatment effects on 45 162 stands in low– to midelevation dry forests (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. P. & C. Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of the western United States. We evaluated treatment effects on predicted post-treatment fire behavior (fire type) and fire hazard (torching index). FFE-FVS predicts that thinning and surface fuel treatments reduced crown fire behavior relative to no treatment; a large proportion of stands were predicted to transition from active crown fire pre-treatment to surface fire post-treatment. Intense thinning treatments… – November 2011 (pdf 1.86MB)

    CRED CRUNCH, “Disaster Data: A Balanced Perspective”

    In the first semester of 2011, natural disasters had a devastat-ing impact on human society. Preliminary EM-DAT figures showed the occurrence of 108 natural disasters, which killed over 23 thousand people, affected nearly 44 million others and caused more than US$ 253 billion of economic damages… – September 2011 (pdf 915KB)

    Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous U.S. 2004 to 2009

    Wetlands are transitional from true aquatic habitats to dry land (upland) and as a result, their abundance, type, and condition are directly reflected in the health and abundance of many species. In 1986, the United States Congress enacted the Emergency Wetlands Resources Act (Public Law 99-645) recognizing that wetlands are nationally important resources and that these resources have been affected by human activities. – September 2011 (pdf 20MB)

    The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020

    Section 812 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established a requirement that EPA develop periodic reports that estimate the benefits and costs of the Clean Air Act (CAA). The main goal of these reports is to provide Congress and the public with comprehensive, up-to-date, peer-reviewed information on the Clean Air Act’s social benefits and costs, including improvements in human health, welfare, and ecological resources, as well as the impact of CAA provisions on the US economy. This report is the third in the Section 812 series, and is the result of EPA’s Second Prospective analysis of the 1990 Amendments. – March 2011 (pdf 4.02MB)

    Building Effective Environmental Policy: A Guide for Decision-Makers

    This report is designed to help decision-makers in government and industry develop and advise on environmental policy. It will: (1) help policy-makers working on environmental issues understand the range of policy instruments available to them and when each is most effective (2) suggest how business can constructively feed into the process at various stages (3) present a framework, based on years of research, for building more effective and efficient environmental policy – 2011 (pdf 1.26MB)

    Synthesis of the Effects of Pavement Properties on the Rolling Resistance

    The main objective of this work was to objectively investigate the influence of pavement type (i.e., asphalt and concrete) on the rolling resistance of vehicle tires by reviewing existing literature. Therefore, it was important to research the influence of specific pavement properties such as stiffness and surface geometry on rolling resistance. This work also summarizes and evaluates the existing methods used to measure the rolling resistance, and quantifies the influence of the properties. A recommendation is made based on the existing literature and… – 2011 (pdf 1.02MB)

    Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan

    This 2010 Report to Congress on the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is the second in a series of periodic reports to fulfill the requirements of the Water Resources Development Act of 2000 (WRDA 2000) and the CERP Programmatic Regulations. This Report provides members of Congress and other interested parties with an update on the progress of CERP over the past five-year period… – 2011 (pdf 5.44MB)

    Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed landscape changes in coastal Louisiana by determining land and water classifications for 17 datasets. These datasets include survey data from 1932, aerial data from 1956, and Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the 1970s to 2010. Previous studies have analyzed land change in coastal Louisiana, but many are out of date, provide data for limited time periods, or lack the temporal frequency necessary to provide information about when the loss occurred. The purpose of this study is to provide updated estimates of persistent land change and historical land change trends for coastal Louisiana and for each hydrologic basin, as defined by the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act Program (n.d.), for the 1932-2010 period of record. – 2011 (pdf 1.92MB)

    2009 TRI (Toxics Release Inventory) National Analysis

    EPA released the 2009 TRI National Analysis on December 16, 2010. Read the Greenversations blog post “What’s in your neighborhood”. The TRI National Analysis is an annual report that displays EPA’s analysis of the most recent TRI data. It includes a variety of documents and webpages that outline national and local trends in toxic chemical disposal or other releases to the environment, as well as trends in toxic chemicals managed by TRI facilities… – December 16, 2010

    Untangling the Environmentalist’s Paradox: Why Is Human Well-being Increasing as Ecosystem Services Degrade?

    Environmentalists have argued that ecological degradation will lead to declines in the well-being of people dependent on ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment paradoxically found that human well-being has increased despite large global declines in most ecosystem services. – September 2010 (pdf 413KB)

    BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Budget: What Happened to the Oil?

    The National Incident Command (NIC) assembled a number of interagency expert scientific teams to estimate the quantity of BP Deepwater Horizon oil that has been released from the well and the fate of that oil. The expertise of government scientists serving on these teams is complemented by nongovernmental and governmental specialists reviewing the calculations and conclusions…. – August 2010 (pdf 88.4KB)

    Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2010

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. These facts and figures are current through calendar year 2010… – 2011 (pdf 891KB)

    Propane Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Growing concern about the potential effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased the focus on low-emission technologies and energy sources. Propane, approved by the Environmental Protection Agency as a clean alternative fuel, can help address these concerns because it performs better than many other fuels with respect to GHG emissions. – March 2010 (pdf 197KB)

    Lloyd’s 360° Risk Insight, Global Water Scarcity: Risks and Challenges for Business

    Most businesses will find it difficult to manage all of their water risks alone. Given the complexity of the issues and the political and social importance of water, engagement with civil society, other companies and the public sector is necessary. This report briefly outlines the nature of the global corporate risk around water and highlights ways in which business can better manage this growing risk. The report focuses on water scarcity as the major global issue affecting business, but similar issues often arise where water quality presents risks to companies. – 2010 (pdf 2.96MB)

    Chromium-6 Is Widespread in US Tap Water

    Laboratory tests commissioned by Environmental Working Group (EWG) have detected hexavalent chromium, the carcinogenic “Erin Brockovich chemical,” in tap water from 31 of 35 American cities. The highest levels were in Norman, Okla.; Honolulu, Hawaii; and Riverside, Calif. In all, water samples from 25 cities contained the toxic metal at concentrations above the safe maximum recently proposed by California regulators… – 2010

    The China Greentech Report™ 2009

    China’s market requirements for greentech solutions are tremendous. Chinese government policies are positive drivers for greentech market development and a wide range of businesses are beginning to deploy greentech solutions to address a broad spectrum of environmental issues. While significant challenges remain, stakeholders have clear opportunities to accelerate market development and create a more environmentally sustainable China. – September 2009 (pdf 4.95MB)

    Groundwater Availability Detailed in California’s Central Valley

    A new, three-dimensional water-modeling tool provides a detailed picture of how water flows below ground and how it relates to surface-water in rivers and canals in California’s Central Valley. – July 8, 2009 (pdf 188KB)

    Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer by human-produced ozone-depleting substances has been recognized as a global environmental issue for more than three decades, and the international effort to address the issue via the United Nations Montreal Protocol marked its 20-year anniversary in 2007. Scientific understanding underpinned the Protocol at its inception and ever since. – November 2008 (pdf 4.83MB)

    The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Interim Report – Three Key Messages

    1. Economic size of the loss and its impact on human welfare
    2. Strong link with poverty
    3. Discount rates

    http://www.teebweb.org/ – May 2008 (Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation 1.8MB)

    Decision-Making Chronology for the Lake Pontchartrain & Vicinity Hurrican Protection Project

    The one-two punch of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September of 2005 proved calamitous to a vast swath of the U.S. Gulf Coast across the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Texas. While still offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, Hurricane Katrina’s 175 mph winds created the highest storm surge yet recorded at landfall in North America… – March 2008 (pdf 2.37MB)

    United Nations Global Environment Outlook

    The fourth Global Environment Outlook: environment for development (GEO-4) assessment is a comprehensive and authoritative UN report on environment, development and human well-being, providing incisive analysis and information for decision making.
    Download the full report – 2007(pdf 22.1MB)

    REACH in Brief

    REACH is based on the idea that industry itself is best placed to ensure that the chemicals it manufactures and puts on the market in the EU do not adversely affect human health or the environment. This requires that industry has certain knowledge of the properties of its substances and manages potential risks. Authorities should focus their resources on ensuring industry… – October 2007 (pdf 143KB)

    Environmental Protection, Public Health and Human Rights

    Until very recently, environmental protection, public health and human rights were viewed as distinct areas of public policy by governmental institutions and non-governmental organizations alike at both the national and international levels. With increasing globalization of trade and commerce in the past few decades, the environmental and public health impacts of rapid industrialization and urbanization in different regions of the world are now being recognized as having major human rights implications by many policy makers. – April 2003 (pdf 285KB)

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